Pakistan ranked third in the list of countries in 2013 most impacted by terrorism with 1,933 attacks killing 2,345 people, according to the second edition of the Global Terrorism Index (GTI).
With a 37 per cent increase in deaths and 28 per cent increase in injuries since 2012, Pakistan scored 9.37 out of worst 10.
Globally, the number of lives lost to terrorist attacks increased by 61% in a single year, rising from 11,133 in 2012 to 17,958 in 2013.
The index also recorded a 44% increase in the number of terrorist incidents, rising from 6,825 in 2012 to 9,814 in 2013. More than 80 per cent of the lives lost to terrorism occurred in only five countries; Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria and Syria.
Explosives accounted for the majority of these attacks, while suicide bombings accounted for less than 5%.
First launched by the Institute for Economics & Peace (IEP) in 2012, the GTI ranks countries by the impact of terrorist activities as well as analysing the economic and social dimensions associated with terrorism.
The index scores 162 countries, covering 99.6% of the world’s population, and examines trends from 2000 to 2013. The indicators used include the number of terrorist incidents, fatalities, injuries and property damage.
Over 80% of the deaths from terrorist attacks in 2013 were in just five countries: Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria and Syria.
Iraq continues to be the country most impacted by terrorism with 2,492 attacks killing 6,362 people, which represents a 164% increase from 2012. ISIL was responsible for most of the deaths in the country.
Terrorism has also grown significantly in intensity and breadth outside of these five countries. In 2013 there were 3,721 attacks recorded in the rest of the world killing 3,236 people, an increase of over 50% YOY. A total of 60 countries recorded deaths from terrorist attacks in 2013.
Steve Killelea, Executive Chairman of IEP, said, “Terrorism doesn’t arise on its own; by identifying the factors associated with it, policies can be implemented to improve the underlying environment that nurtures terrorism. The most significant actions that can be taken are to reduce state-sponsored violence such as extra-judicial killings, reduce group grievances and hostilities, and improve effective and community-supported policing.”
There are three statistically significant factors associated with terrorism: state sponsored violence, group grievances and high levels of criminality. Interestingly, poverty rates, levels of school attendance and most economic factors have no association with terrorism.
The strong relationship between terrorism and other forms of violence underlines how the persistent targeting of police forces and the instability generated by terrorist activity can undermine the rule of law.
The two most successful strategies for ending terrorist groups since the late 1960s have been either policing or the initiation of a political process; 80% of organisations that ceased operations ended this way. Only 10% of terrorist organisations ended due to having achieved their goals while 7% were eliminated by full military engagement.
The GTI also provides guidance for assessing the risk of the potential of future attacks in countries where there are currently low levels of activity. Based on measuring various political, violence and group relationship indicators, countries at risk of substantial increases in terrorism have been identified.
At least 13 countries are facing a greater risk of substantial terrorist activity: Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Iran, Israel, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Uganda.
To see the full coverage of this Index, visit GTI site.
To download complete report, click here.
See also: Everything else we reported on Pakistan and its future (links below)
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